Open Source and Free Web Conferencing Tools

Yugma
www.yugma.com
Offers free cross-platform (PC, Mac, Linux) web conference, screen control, chat, and FREE audio conferencing for up to 15 attendees (long distance charges may apply..but you already have VOIP, right?). Nice synch to Outlook and quick download. In my test, I was able to download the thin client in IE 8, but Firefox got hosed twice. Mac was fine. Go figure.
The paid version allows you to pre-schedule conferences on the web site.

Microsoft SharedView
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=95AF94BA-755E-4039-9038-63005EE9D33A&displaylang=en
I originally tried SharedView since it seemed like a LiveMeeting 'lite' and I am already confortable with that. The beta was a bit crunchy, and for screen sharing really awful...dropped connections, frozen frames...a nightmare. While this is now a 1.0 release, I have yet to give it a second chance. Besides, I may stick with yugma since SharedView is only for the PC. I am not so concerned with Linux, but I do need to connect with folks on Macs.

dimdim
www.dimdim.com
If you dig the whole open source thing, dimdim may be for you. It is also free for conferencing and audio. They also recently received some additional VC funding. Not sure why you'd care about open source web conferencing software...virtual world gaming if your future?? I have not tried it, but appears to be cross platform.

We're fully cross-platform, no downloads to attend, and free for up to 20 attendees per meeting!  And in few weeks we'll have recordings, no downloads required to present, and much more.  You can sign up for our free hosted version or download your own Dimdim open source server…

Yuuguu
www.yuuguu.com
Yuuguu is a free and easy-to-use application for working with colleagues or friends over the web.  It is PC, Mac and Linux compatible and allows up to 30 users to share screens, host online meetings and work in real time on the same documents over the web for free. 

Source: http://jetlounge.net/blogs/teched/archive/2008/06/25/free-web-conference-amp-screen-sharing.aspx

Setting up a SVN Server for Axure Shared Projects

Quick and easy, if you have a server somewhere out there, steps found here show how it easy it is.

First step is to configure (or create if your organization does not already have a managed SVN service) your source control server, which for ease of use I generally use Visual SVN Server and keep it on a stable server that isn’t handling much load already. Install Visual SVN Server from http://www.visualsvn.com/server/download/ and configure as per normal.

From the ‘Repositories’ menu, right click and select ‘Create New Repository’.

Moved Servers and Location

Sorry for any site issues you may have experienced over the last couple of days. I moved my site to a new server in a data center and onto a Windows 2008 II7 machine. Seems BlogEngine.Net had some issues, which I have still yet to resolve.  Though I’ve found some solutions they did not work for me, as I test them live on my production site. So bare with me if you get .Net errors.  I think it’s time to upgrade!

VB.NET to C# Differences

Found this great link today by Dr. Frank McCown over at Harding University Computer Science Dept from 2009.

http://www.harding.edu/fmccown/vbnet_csharp_comparison.html

 

VB.NET

Program Structure

C#

Imports System
Namespace Hello
   Class HelloWorld
      Overloads Shared Sub Main(ByVal args() As String)
         Dim name As String = "VB.NET"
'See if an argument was passed from the command line
          If args.Length = 1 Then name = args(0)
          Console.WriteLine("Hello, " & name & "!")
      End Sub
   End Class
End Namespace

using System;
namespace Hello {
   public class HelloWorld {
      public static void Main(string[] args) {
         string name = "C#";
// See if an argument was passed from the command line
         if (args.Length == 1)
            name = args[0];
         Console.WriteLine("Hello, " + name + "!");
      }
   }
}

VB.NET

Comments

C#

' Single line only
REM Single line only
''' <summary>XML comments</summary>

// Single line
/* Multiple
    line  */
/// <summary>XML comments on single line</summary>
/** <summary>XML comments on multiple lines</summary> */

VB.NET

Data Types

C#

Value Types
Boolean
Byte, SByte
Char
Short, UShort, Integer, UInteger, Long, ULong
Single, Double
Decimal
Date

Reference Types
Object
String

Initializing
Dim correct As Boolean = True
Dim b As Byte = &H2A   'hex
Dim o As Byte = &O52   'octal
Dim person As Object = Nothing
Dim name As String = "Dwight"
Dim grade As Char = "B"c
Dim today As Date = #12/31/2007 12:15:00 PM#
Dim amount As Decimal = 35.99@
Dim gpa As Single = 2.9!
Dim pi As Double = 3.14159265
Dim lTotal As Long = 123456L
Dim sTotal As Short = 123S
Dim usTotal As UShort = 123US
Dim uiTotal As UInteger = 123UI
Dim ulTotal As ULong = 123UL

Type Information
Dim x As Integer
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType())          ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(GetType(Integer))   ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(TypeName(x))        ' Prints Integer

Type Conversion
Dim d As Single = 3.5
Dim i As Integer = CType(d, Integer)   ' set to 4 (Banker's rounding)
i = CInt(d)  ' same result as CType
i = Int(d)    ' set to 3 (Int function truncates the decimal)

Value Types
bool
byte, sbyte
char
short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong
float, double
decimal
DateTime   (not a built-in C# type)

Reference Types
object
string

Initializing
bool correct = true;
byte b = 0x2A;   // hex
object person = null;
string name = "Dwight";
char grade = 'B';
DateTime today = DateTime.Parse("12/31/2007 12:15:00");
decimal amount = 35.99m;
float gpa = 2.9f;
double pi = 3.14159265;
long lTotal = 123456L;
short sTotal = 123;
ushort usTotal = 123;
uint uiTotal = 123;
ulong ulTotal = 123;

Type Information
int x;
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType());              // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(typeof(int));               // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType().Name);   // prints Int32

Type Conversion
float d = 3.5f;
int i = (int)d;   // set to 3  (truncates decimal)

VB.NET

Constants

C#

Const MAX_STUDENTS As Integer = 25

' Can set to a const or var; may be initialized in a constructor
ReadOnly MIN_DIAMETER As Single = 4.93

const int MAX_STUDENTS = 25;

// Can set to a const or var; may be initialized in a constructor
readonly float MIN_DIAMETER = 4.93f;

VB.NET

Enumerations

C#

Enum Action
  Start 
  [Stop]   ' Stop is a reserved word
  Rewind
  Forward
End Enum
Enum Status
  Flunk = 50
  Pass = 70
  Excel = 90
End Enum

Dim a As Action = Action.Stop
If a <> Action.Start Then _
   Console.WriteLine(a.ToString & " is " & a)     ' Prints "Stop is 1"
Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass)     ' Prints 70
Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass.ToString())     ' Prints Pass

enum Action {Start, Stop, Rewind, Forward};
enum Status {Flunk = 50, Pass = 70, Excel = 90};
Action a = Action.Stop;
if (a != Action.Start)
  Console.WriteLine(a + " is " + (int) a);    // Prints "Stop is 1"
Console.WriteLine((int) Status.Pass);    // Prints 70
Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass);      // Prints Pass

VB.NET

Operators

C#

Comparison
=  <  >  <=  >=  <>

Arithmetic
+  -  *  /
Mod
(integer division)
(raise to a power)

Assignment
=  +=  -=  *=  /=  \=  ^=  <<=  >>=  &=

Bitwise
And   Or   Xor   Not   <<   >>

Logical
AndAlso   OrElse   And   Or   Xor   Not

Note: AndAlso and OrElse perform short-circuit logical evaluations

String Concatenation
&

Comparison
==  <  >  <=  >=  !=

Arithmetic
+  -  *  /
(mod)
(integer division if both operands are ints)
Math.Pow(x, y)

Assignment
=  +=  -=  *=  /=   %=  &=  |=  ^=  <<=  >>=  ++  --

Bitwise
&   |   ^   ~   <<   >>

Logical
&&   ||   &   |   ^   !

Note: && and || perform short-circuit logical evaluations

String Concatenation
+

VB.NET

Choices

C#

' Ternary/Conditional operator (Iff evaluates 2nd and 3rd expressions)
greeting = If(age < 20, "What's up?", "Hello")

' One line doesn't require "End If"
If age < 20 Then greeting = "What's up?"
If age < 20 Then greeting = "What's up?" Else greeting = "Hello"

' Use : to put two commands on same line
If x <> 100 AndAlso y < 5 Then x *= 5 : y *= 2 

' Preferred
If x <> 100 AndAlso y < 5 Then
  x *= 5
  y *= 2
End If

' To break up any long single line use _
If whenYouHaveAReally < longLine And _
  itNeedsToBeBrokenInto2 > Lines Then _
  UseTheUnderscore(charToBreakItUp)

'If x > 5 Then
  x *= y
ElseIf x = 5 OrElse y Mod 2 = 0 Then
  x += y
ElseIf x < 10 Then
  x -= y
Else
  x /= y
End If

Select Case color   ' Must be a primitive data type
Case "pink", "red"
    r += 1
Case "blue"
    b += 1
Case "green"
    g += 1
Case Else
    other += 1
End Select

// Ternary/Conditional operator
greeting = age < 20 ? "What's up?" : "Hello";

if (age < 20)
  greeting = "What's up?";
else
  greeting = "Hello";

// Multiple statements must be enclosed in {}
if (x != 100 && y < 5) {   
  x *= 5;
  y *= 2;
}

No need for _ or : since ; is used to terminate each statement.


if
(x > 5)
  x *= y;
else if (x == 5 || y % 2 == 0)
  x += y;
else if (x < 10)
  x -= y;
else
  x /= y;

// Every case must end with break or goto case
switch (color) {                          // Must be integer or string
case "pink":
case "red":    r++;    break;
case "blue":   b++;   break;
case "green": g++;   break;
default:    other++;  break; // break necessary on default
}

VB.NET

Loops

C#

Pre-test Loops:

While c < 10
  c += 1
End While

Do Until c = 10 
  c += 1
Loop

Do While c < 10
  c += 1
Loop

For c = 2 To 10 Step 2
  Console.WriteLine(c)
Next


Post-test Loops:

Do
  c += 1
Loop While c < 10

Do
  c += 1
Loop Until c = 10

'  Array or collection looping
Dim names As String() = {"Fred", "Sue", "Barney"}
For Each s As String In names
  Console.WriteLine(s)
Next

' Breaking out of loops
Dim i As Integer = 0
While (True)
  If (i = 5) Then Exit While
  i += 1
End While

' Continue to next iteration
For i = 0 To 4
  If i < 4 Then Continue For
  Console.WriteLine(i)   ' Only prints 4
Next

Pre-test Loops:

// no "until" keyword
while (c < 10)
  c++;
for (c = 2; c <= 10; c += 2)
  Console.WriteLine(c);

Post-test Loop:
do
  c++;
while (c < 10);

// Array or collection looping
string[] names = {"Fred", "Sue", "Barney"};
foreach (string s in names)
  Console.WriteLine(s);

// Breaking out of loops
int i = 0;
while (true) {
  if (i == 5)
break;
  i++;
}

// Continue to next iteration
for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
  if (i < 4)
continue;
  Console.WriteLine(i);   // Only prints 4
}

VB.NET

Arrays

C#

Dim nums() As Integer = {1, 2, 3} 
For i As Integer = 0 To nums.Length - 1
  Console.WriteLine(nums(i))
Next
' 4 is the index of the last element, so it holds 5 elements
Dim names(4) As String
names(0) = "David"
names(5) = "Bobby"  ' Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException
' Resize the array, keeping the existing values (Preserve is optional)
ReDim Preserve names(6)

Dim twoD(rows-1, cols-1) As Single
twoD(2, 0) = 4.5
Dim jagged()() As Integer = { _
  New Integer(4) {}, New Integer(1) {}, New Integer(2) {} }
jagged(0)(4) = 5

int[] nums = {1, 2, 3};
for (int i = 0; i < nums.Length; i++)
  Console.WriteLine(nums[i]);
// 5 is the size of the array
string[] names = new string[5];
names[0] = "David";
names[5] = "Bobby";   // Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException
// C# can't dynamically resize an array.  Just copy into new array.
string[] names2 = new string[7];
Array.Copy(names, names2, names.Length);   // or names.CopyTo(names2, 0);

float[,] twoD = new float[rows, cols];
twoD[2,0] = 4.5f;

int[][] jagged = new int[3][] {
  new int[5], new int[2], new int[3] };
jagged[0][4] = 5;

VB.NET

Functions

C#

' Pass by value (in, default), reference (in/out), and reference (out)
Sub TestFunc(ByVal x As Integer, ByRef y As Integer, ByRefz As Integer)
  x += 1
  y += 1
  z = 5
End Sub

Dim a = 1, b = 1, c As Integer   ' c set to zero by default
TestFunc(a, b, c)
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c)   ' 1 2 5

' Accept variable number of arguments
Function Sum(ByVal ParamArray nums As Integer()) As Integer
  Sum = 0 
  For Each i As Integer In nums
    Sum += i
  Next
End Function ' Or use Return statement like C#
Dim total As Integer = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1)   ' returns 10

' Optional parameters must be listed last and must have a default value
Sub SayHello(ByVal name As String, Optional ByVal prefix As String = "")
  Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " & prefix & " " & name)
End Sub
SayHello("Strangelove", "Dr.")
SayHello("Madonna")

// Pass by value (in, default), reference (in/out), and reference (out)
void TestFunc(int x, ref int y, out int z) {
  x++;  
  y++;
  z = 5;
}

int a = 1, b = 1, c;  // c doesn't need initializing
TestFunc(a, ref b, out c);
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c);  // 1 2 5

// Accept variable number of arguments
int Sum(params int[] nums) {
  int sum = 0;
  foreach (int i in nums)
    sum += i;
  return sum;
}

int total = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1);   // returns 10

/* C# doesn't support optional arguments/parameters.  Just create two different versions of the same function. */
void SayHello(string name, string prefix) {
  Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " + prefix + " " + name);

void SayHello(string name) {
  SayHello(name, "");
}

VB.NET

Strings

C#

Special character constants (all also accessible from ControlChars class)
vbCrLf, vbCr, vbLf, vbNewLine
vbNullString
vbTab
vbBack
vbFormFeed
vbVerticalTab
""

' String concatenation (use & or +)
Dim school As String = "Harding" & vbTab
school = school & "University" ' school is "Harding (tab) University"

' Chars
Dim letter As Char = school.Chars(0)   ' letter is H
letter = Convert.ToChar(65)                ' letter is A
letter = Chr(65)                                 ' same thing
Dim word() As Char = school.ToCharArray() ' word holds Harding

' No string literal operator
Dim msg As String = "File is c:\temp\x.dat"

' String comparison
Dim mascot As String = "Bisons"
If (mascot = "Bisons") Then   ' true
If (mascot.Equals("Bisons")) Then   ' true
If (mascot.ToUpper().Equals("BISONS")) Then  ' true
If (mascot.CompareTo("Bisons") = 0) Then   ' true

' String matching with Like - Regex is more powerful
If ("John 3:16" Like "Jo[Hh]? #:*") Then   'true

' Substring
s = mascot.Substring(2, 3)) ' s is "son"

' Replacement
s = mascot.Replace("sons", "nomial")) ' s is "Binomial"

' Split
Dim names As String = "Frank,Becky,Ethan,Braden"
Dim parts() As String = names.Split(",".ToCharArray())   ' One name in each slot

' Date to string
Dim dt As New DateTime(1973, 10, 12)
Dim s As String = "My birthday: " & dt.ToString("MMM dd, yyyy")   ' Oct 12, 1973

' Integer to String
Dim x As Integer = 2
Dim y As String = x.ToString()     ' y is "2"

' String to Integer
Dim x As Integer = Convert.ToInt32("-5")     ' x is -5

' Mutable string
Dim buffer As New System.Text.StringBuilder("two ")
buffer.Append("three ")
buffer.Insert(0, "one ")
buffer.Replace("two", "TWO")
Console.WriteLine(buffer)         ' Prints "one TWO three"

Escape sequences
\r    // carriage-return
\n    // line-feed
\t    // tab
\\    // backslash
\"    // quote

// String concatenation
string school = "Harding\t";
school = school + "University";   // school is "Harding (tab) University"

// Chars
char letter = school[0];            // letter is H
letter = Convert.ToChar(65);     // letter is A
letter = (char)65;                    // same thing
char[] word = school.ToCharArray();   // word holds Harding

// String literal
string msg = @"File is c:\temp\x.dat";
// same as
string msg = "File is c:\\temp\\x.dat";

// String comparison
string mascot = "Bisons";
if (mascot == "Bisons")    // true
if (mascot.Equals("Bisons"))   // true
if (mascot.ToUpper().Equals("BISONS"))   // true
if (mascot.CompareTo("Bisons") == 0)    // true

// String matching - No Like equivalent, use Regex

// Substring
s = mascot.Substring(2, 3))     // s is "son"

// Replacement
s = mascot.Replace("sons", "nomial"))     // s is "Binomial"

// Split
string names = "Frank,Becky,Ethan,Braden";
string[] parts = names.Split(",".ToCharArray());   // One name in each slot

// Date to string
DateTime dt = new DateTime(1973, 10, 12);
string s = dt.ToString("MMM dd, yyyy");     // Oct 12, 1973

// int to string
int x = 2;
string y = x.ToString();     // y is "2"

// string to int
int x = Convert.ToInt32("-5");     // x is -5

// Mutable string
System.Text.StringBuilder buffer = new System.Text.StringBuilder("two ");
buffer.Append("three ");
buffer.Insert(0, "one ");
buffer.Replace("two", "TWO");
Console.WriteLine(buffer);     // Prints "one TWO three"

VB.NET

Regular Expressions

C#

Imports System.Text.RegularExpressions

' Match a string pattern
Dim r As New Regex("j[aeiou]h?. \d:*", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase Or _
        RegexOptions.Compiled)
If (r.Match("John 3:16").Success) Then   'true
    Console.WriteLine("Match")
End If

' Find and remember all matching patterns
Dim s As String = "My number is 305-1881, not 305-1818."
Dim r As New Regex("(\d+-\d+)")
Dim m As Match = r.Match(s)     ' Matches 305-1881 and 305-1818
While m.Success
    Console.WriteLine("Found number: " & m.Groups(1).Value & " at position " _
            & m.Groups(1).Index.ToString)
    m = m.NextMatch()
End While

' Remeber multiple parts of matched pattern
Dim r As New Regex("(\d\d):(\d\d) (am|pm)")
Dim m As Match = r.Match("We left at 03:15 pm.")
If m.Success Then
    Console.WriteLine("Hour: " & m.Groups(1).ToString)       ' 03
    Console.WriteLine("Min: " & m.Groups(2).ToString)         ' 15
    Console.WriteLine("Ending: " & m.Groups(3).ToString)   ' pm
End If

' Replace all occurrances of a pattern
Dim r As New Regex("h\w+?d", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase)
Dim s As String = r.Replace("I heard this was HARD!", "easy")  ' I easy this was easy!

' Replace matched patterns
Dim s As String = Regex.Replace("123 < 456", "(\d+) . (\d+)", "$2 > $1")   ' 456 > 123

' Split a string based on a pattern
Dim names As String = "Frank, Becky, Ethan, Braden"
Dim r As New Regex(",\s*")
Dim parts() As String = r.Split(names)   ' One name in each slot

using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

// Match a string pattern
Regex r = new Regex(@"j[aeiou]h?. \d:*", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase |
        RegexOptions.Compiled);
if (r.Match("John 3:16").Success)   // true
    Console.WriteLine("Match");

// Find and remember all matching patterns
string s = "My number is 305-1881, not 305-1818.";
Regex r = new Regex("(\\d+-\\d+)");
// Matches 305-1881 and 305-1818
for (Match m = r.Match(s); m.Success; m = m.NextMatch())
    Console.WriteLine("Found number: " + m.Groups[1] + " at position " +
        m.Groups[1].Index);

// Remeber multiple parts of matched pattern
Regex r = new Regex("@(\d\d):(\d\d) (am|pm)");
Match m = r.Match("We left at 03:15 pm.");
if (m.Success) {
    Console.WriteLine("Hour: " + m.Groups[1]);       // 03
    Console.WriteLine("Min: " + m.Groups[2]);         // 15
    Console.WriteLine("Ending: " + m.Groups[3]);   // pm
}

// Replace all occurrances of a pattern
Regex r = new Regex("h\\w+?d", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase);
string s = r.Replace("I heard this was HARD!", "easy"));   // I easy this was easy!

// Replace matched patterns
string s = Regex.Replace("123 < 456", @"(\d+) . (\d+)", "$2 > $1");   // 456 > 123

// Split a string based on a pattern
string names = "Frank, Becky, Ethan, Braden";
Regex r = new Regex(@",\s*");
string[] parts = r.Split(names);   // One name in each slot

VB.NET

Exception Handling

C#

' Throw an exception
Dim ex As New Exception("Something is really wrong.")
Throw  ex

' Catch an exception
Try
  y = 0
  x = 10 / y
Catch ex As Exception When y = 0 ' Argument and When is optional
  Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
Finally
  Beep()
End Try

' Deprecated unstructured error handling
On Error GoTo MyErrorHandler
...
MyErrorHandler: Console.WriteLine(Err.Description)

// Throw an exception
Exception up = new Exception("Something is really wrong.");
throw up;  // ha ha

// Catch an exception
try
  y = 0;
  x = 10 / y;
}
catch (Exception ex) {   // Argument is optional, no "When" keyword
  Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
}
finally {
  Microsoft.VisualBasic.Interaction.Beep();
}

VB.NET

Namespaces

C#

Namespace Harding.Compsci.Graphics 
  ...
End Namespace

' or

Namespace Harding
Namespace Compsci
Namespace Graphics 
      ...
End Namespace
End Namespace
End Namespace

Imports Harding.Compsci.Graphics

namespace Harding.Compsci.Graphics {
  ...
}

// or

namespace Harding {
namespace Compsci {
namespace Graphics {
      ...
    }
  }
}

using Harding.Compsci.Graphics;

VB.NET

Classes / Interfaces

C#

Accessibility keywords
Public
Private
Friend                   
Protected
Protected Friend
Shared

' Inheritance
Class FootballGame
Inherits Competition
  ...
End Class

' Interface definition
Interface IAlarmClock 
  ...
End Interface

// Extending an interface
Interface IAlarmClock
Inherits IClock
  ...
End Interface

// Interface implementation
Class WristWatch 
Implements IAlarmClock, ITimer 
   ...
End Class

Accessibility keywords
public
private
internal
protected
protected internal
static

// Inheritance
class FootballGame : Competition {
  ...
}


// Interface definition
interface IAlarmClock {
  ...
}

// Extending an interface
interface IAlarmClock : IClock {
  ...
}


// Interface implementation
class WristWatch : IAlarmClock, ITimer {
   ...
}

VB.NET

Constructors / Destructors

C#

Class SuperHero
  Private _powerLevel As Integer
  Public Sub New()
    _powerLevel = 0
  End Sub
  Public Sub New(ByVal powerLevel As Integer)
    Me._powerLevel = powerLevel
  End Sub
  Protected Overrides Sub Finalize() 
' Desctructor code to free unmanaged resources
    MyBase.Finalize()
  End Sub
End Class

class SuperHero {
  private int _powerLevel;
  public SuperHero() {
     _powerLevel = 0;
  }
  public SuperHero(int powerLevel) {
    this._powerLevel= powerLevel; 
  }
~SuperHero() {
// Destructor code to free unmanaged resources.
    // Implicitly creates a Finalize method
  }
}

VB.NET

Using Objects

C#

Dim hero As SuperHero = New SuperHero
' or
Dim hero As New SuperHero

With hero
  .Name = "SpamMan"
  .PowerLevel = 3
End With

hero.Defend("Laura Jones")
hero.Rest()     ' Calling Shared method
' or
SuperHero.Rest()

Dim hero2 As SuperHero = hero  ' Both reference the same object
hero2.Name = "WormWoman"
Console.WriteLine(hero.Name)   ' Prints WormWoman

hero = Nothing ' Free the object

If hero Is Nothing Then _
  hero = New SuperHero

Dim obj As Object = New SuperHero
If TypeOf obj Is SuperHero Then _
  Console.WriteLine("Is a SuperHero object.")

' Mark object for quick disposal
Using reader As StreamReader = File.OpenText("test.txt")
  Dim line As String = reader.ReadLine()
  While Not line Is Nothing
    Console.WriteLine(line)
    line = reader.ReadLine()
  End While
End Using

SuperHero hero = new SuperHero();

// No "With" construct
hero.Name = "SpamMan";
hero.PowerLevel = 3;

hero.Defend("Laura Jones");
SuperHero.Rest();   // Calling static method

SuperHero hero2 = hero;   // Both reference the same object
hero2.Name = "WormWoman";
Console.WriteLine(hero.Name);   // Prints WormWoman

hero = null ;   // Free the object

if (hero == null)
  hero = new SuperHero();

Object obj = new SuperHero(); 
if (obj is SuperHero)
  Console.WriteLine("Is a SuperHero object.");

// Mark object for quick disposal
using (StreamReader reader = File.OpenText("test.txt")) {
  string line;
  while ((line = reader.ReadLine()) != null)
    Console.WriteLine(line);
}

VB.NET

Structs

C#

Structure StudentRecord
  Public name As String
  Public gpa As Single
  Public Sub New(ByVal name As String, ByVal gpa As Single)
    Me.name = name
    Me.gpa = gpa
  End Sub
End Structure

Dim stu As StudentRecord = New StudentRecord("Bob", 3.5)
Dim stu2 As StudentRecord = stu  
stu2.name = "Sue"
Console.WriteLine(stu.name)    ' Prints Bob
Console.WriteLine(stu2.name)  ' Prints Sue

struct StudentRecord {
  public string name;
  public float gpa;
  public StudentRecord(string name, float gpa) {
    this.name = name;
    this.gpa = gpa;
  }
}

StudentRecord stu = new StudentRecord("Bob", 3.5f);
StudentRecord stu2 = stu;  
stu2.name = "Sue";
Console.WriteLine(stu.name);    // Prints Bob
Console.WriteLine(stu2.name);   // Prints Sue

VB.NET

Properties

C#

Private _size As Integer
Public Property Size() As Integer
Get
    Return _size
End Get
Set (ByVal Value As Integer)
    If Value < 0 Then
      _size = 0
    Else
      _size = Value
    End If
End Set
End Property

foo.Size += 1

private int _size;
public int Size {
get {
    return _size;
  }
set {
    if (value < 0)
      _size = 0;
    else
      _size = value;
  }
}

foo.Size++;

VB.NET

Delegates / Events

C#

Delegate Sub MsgArrivedEventHandler(ByVal message As String)

Event MsgArrivedEvent As MsgArrivedEventHandler

' or to define an event which declares a delegate implicitly
Event MsgArrivedEvent(ByVal message As String)

AddHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOfMy_MsgArrivedCallback
' Won't throw an exception if obj is Nothing
RaiseEvent MsgArrivedEvent("Test message")
RemoveHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOfMy_MsgArrivedCallback

Imports System.Windows.Forms

Dim WithEvents MyButton As Button   ' WithEvents can't be used on local variable
MyButton = New Button

Private Sub MyButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
  ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyButton.Click
  MessageBox.Show(Me, "Button was clicked", "Info", _
    MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information)
End Sub

delegate void MsgArrivedEventHandler(string message);

event MsgArrivedEventHandler MsgArrivedEvent;

// Delegates must be used with events in C#
MsgArrivedEvent += new MsgArrivedEventHandler(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback);
MsgArrivedEvent("Test message");    // Throws exception if obj is null
MsgArrivedEvent -= new MsgArrivedEventHandler(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback);

using System.Windows.Forms;

Button MyButton = new Button(); 
MyButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(MyButton_Click);

private void MyButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e) {
  MessageBox.Show(this, "Button was clicked", "Info",
    MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information);
}

VB.NET

Console I/O

C#

Console.Write("What's your name? ")
Dim name As String = Console.ReadLine()
Console.Write("How old are you? ")
Dim age As Integer = Val(Console.ReadLine())
Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age) 
' or
Console.WriteLine(name & " is " & age & " years old.")
Dim c As Integer
c = Console.Read()    ' Read single char
Console.WriteLine(c)   ' Prints 65 if user enters "A"

Console.Write("What's your name? ");
string name = Console.ReadLine();
Console.Write("How old are you? ");
int age = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age);
// or
Console.WriteLine(name + " is " + age + " years old.");

int c = Console.Read();  // Read single char
Console.WriteLine(c);    // Prints 65 if user enters "A"

VB.NET

File I/O

C#

Imports System.IO

' Write out to text file
Dim writer As StreamWriter = File.CreateText("c:\myfile.txt")
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.")
writer.Close()

' Read all lines from text file
Dim reader As StreamReader = File.OpenText("c:\myfile.txt")
Dim line As String = reader.ReadLine()
While Not line Is Nothing
  Console.WriteLine(line)
  line = reader.ReadLine()
End While
reader.Close()

' Write out to binary file
Dim str As String = "Text data"
Dim num As Integer = 123
Dim binWriter As NewBinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite("c:\myfile.dat")) 
binWriter.Write(str) 
binWriter.Write(num) 
binWriter.Close()

' Read from binary file
Dim binReader As NewBinaryReader(File.OpenRead("c:\myfile.dat"))
str = binReader.ReadString()
num = binReader.ReadInt32()
binReader.Close()

using System.IO;

// Write out to text file
StreamWriter writer = File.CreateText("c:\\myfile.txt");
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.");
writer.Close();

// Read all lines from text file
StreamReader reader = File.OpenText("c:\\myfile.txt");
string line = reader.ReadLine();
while (line != null) {
  Console.WriteLine(line);
  line = reader.ReadLine();
}
reader.Close();

// Write out to binary file
string str = "Text data";
int num = 123;
BinaryWriter binWriter = new BinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite("c:\\myfile.dat"));
binWriter.Write(str);
binWriter.Write(num);
binWriter.Close();

// Read from binary file
BinaryReader binReader = new BinaryReader(File.OpenRead("c:\\myfile.dat"));
str = binReader.ReadString();
num = binReader.ReadInt32();
binReader.Close();